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Ursa Astronomical Association

Half-sky auroras - 8.1.2022 at 22.30 - 9.1.2022 at 01.30 Kajaani Observation number 103633

Visibility IV / V

A perfect match from the mass discharge of the corona. The bad weather meant to ruin the whole presentation, but a cloud hole was eventually found. The aggressive substorm offered the best output for a long time at its place. Below are pictures of the different stages. The SAR arc that appeared before the storm in the bottom image. At this point, the still low cloud was plentiful. EDIT. It is therefore CIR, not CME, which I initially understood to be the cause of the northern lights. I only got to see the satellite data after I was watching this release and now I can clearly see the shock front of the open wind. EDIT. modified first image. Pictured is an oval moment before the storm brightens and photographed to the east. In the oval, the dune-like formations stand out horizontally? Similar formations are also seen in the triangular image depicted to the west at almost the same time. #sarg

More similar observations
Additional information
  • Aurora brightness
    • Very bright auroras
  • Observed aurora forms
    • Arc info

      ARC The arcs are wider than the bands and do not fold as strongly. The arcs are normally neither very bright nor active.

      The arc is probably the most common form of aurora. When aurora show is a calm arc in the low northern sky it often doesn’t evolve to anything more during night. In more active shows the arc is often the first form to appear and the last to disappear.

      The lower edge of the arc is usually sharp but the upper edge can gradually blend into the background sky. As activity increases rays and folds normally develop, and the arcs turn gradually into bands.

      An aurora arc runs across the picture. Vertical shapes are rays. Photo by Atacan Ergin.

      Aurora Arc. Photo by Mauri Korpi.

      Aurora Arc. Photo by Anna-Liisa Sarajärvi.

      Aurora Arc. Photo by Matti Asumalahti.

    • Corona info

      CoronaA corona is a hand fan shaped structure, it usually forms south of the observer's zenith, most commonly consisting of rays or bands. The corona is usually the most beautiful part of the aurora show. It is bright and active, but on the other hand also short-lived.

      Aurora corona. Photo by Anna-Liisa Sarajärvi.

      Aurora corona. Photo by Merja Ruotsalainen.

      Corona formed from bands. Photo by Markku Ruonala.

      Aurora corona. Photo by Tapio Koski.

    • Band info

      Bands are usually narrower, more twisty at the bottom, brighter, and more active than arches. Bands usually develop from arches.

      Bands can form J and U shapes, sometimes even full spirals. The corona can also arise from bands. Bands are a fairly common form of aurora.

      Aurora band. Photo by Merja Ruotsalainen.

      Aurora band. Photo by Matias Takala.

      Aurora band. Photo by Lea Rahtu-Korpela.

      Aurora bands. Photo by Lauri Koivuluoma.

      Aurora band. Photo by Matias Takala.

    • Rays info

      The raysare parallel to the lines of force of the magnetic field, i.e. quite vertical, usually less than one degree thick light streaks. The rays can occur alone or in connection with other shapes, mainly with arcs and bands. Short rays are usually brightest at the bottom but dim quickly. The longest rays, even extending almost from the horizon to the zenith, are usually uniformly bright and quite calm, and unlike the shorter rays, most often occur in groups of a few rays or alone. Rays, like bands, are a very typical form of aurora.

      Artificial light pillars, which are a halo phenomenon visible in ice mist, can sometimes be very similar to the rays of aurora. Confusion is possible especially when the lamps that cause the artificial light pillars are far away and not visible behind buildings or the forest. The nature of the phenomenon is clear at least from the photographs.

      Rays. Picture of Tom Eklund.

      Rays. Photo by Mika Puurula.

      Two beams rise from the aurora veil. Photo by Anssi Mäntylä.

      Two radial bands. Show Jani Lauanne.

      Radial band and veil. Photo by Jussi Alanenpää.

      Two rays. Photo by Aki Taavitsainen.

      It may be possible to confuse such rays with artificial light columns. Compare the image below. Picture of Tom Eklund.

      There is no aurora in this image, but all the light poles - including the wide and diffuse bar seen at the top left - are artificial light pillars born of ice mist. Photo by Sami Jumppanen.

      Aurora and artificial light pillars. All the radial shapes in the picture above are probably artificial light pillars that coincide appropriately with the aurora band. In the image below, the aurora band has shifted and does not overlap with the pillars produced by the orange bulbs. There is no orange in auroras. Photo by Katariina Roiha

    • Veil info

      Veil is the most bland and very common form of aurora. It usually covers its homogeneous dim glow over a wide area of the sky at once. Most often, the veil is seen in the calmer and quiet phase of the night after the aurora maximum as a background for other forms. The veil can also occur alone and in that case it will be quite difficult to reliably identify as an aurora, especially at a observation site which has a lot of light pollution.

      A similar glow of light can also be caused by airborne moisture, smoke, or a very thin layer of clouds that reflects the light that hits them. However, clouds can also be used to identify veil, especially if the middle or upper cloud appears dark against a lighter background, then it is very likely to be aurora veil if the brightness of the background sky is not due to the rising or falling Moon or Sun. When photographing, very long exposure times usually reveal the green colour of the veil auroras.

      Veil and rays. Photo by Esa Palmi.

      Red aurora veil. Photo by Marko Mikkilä.


      Veil. Photo by Milla Myllymaa.


      Aurora veil that changes color from green at the lower edge through purple to blue at the top. Photo by Jaakko Hatanpää.


      Dim green veil. Photo by Jarmo Leskinen.


      Radial aurora band surrounded by veil. Photo by Jussi Alanenpää.

    • Form not identifiable info

      Form not identifiable
      Sometimes auroras have to be observed in such poor conditions that it is not possible to reliably identify the shape even if for example the structure and conditions could be recognized. Such a situation could be the outcome of for example alight background sky, cloud cover or a covered horizon.

    • Stable Auroral Red (SAR) arc info

      The Stable Auroral Red arcs (SAR arcs)  are usually clearly distanced to the south from the aurora oval and is a very opaque and normally red ribbon. In most cases SAR arcs are only visible in the photo or on the liveview screen of the SLR camera. Using a camera with very high sensitivity is the best method for capturing these faint arcs. The arch usually settles between east and west.

      A stable red arc of aurora is a rare phenomenon. In some rare occasions, several SAR arcs may be simultaneously visible.

      The first SAR arcs of the Skywarden were observed on nights between November 3-4. and 4-5. days in 2015 in the latitudes of central Finland.   

      SAR arc photographed by Lasse Nurminen 2018. Observation of the Skywarden 79113.

    • Dunes info


      The dunes are a dim and very rare shape that has so far been associated with the aurora visible in early evening.

      Aurora dunes can be most easily confused to ribbons on lower clouds. In order to fill in the description of the phenomenon, a striped pattern formed by parallel lines must also appear in the aurora. The stripes are most easily recognizable right at the front edge of the aurora but they may also occur among the rest of the aurora.

      The dune auroras are visible as a parallel striped float. Photo by Tapio Terenius

      Raidallisen dyynilautan reunassa voi toisinaan olla voimakastakin aaltoilua.

      There can sometimes be strong ripples at the edge of a striped dune float. The rippling of the edge of the dune float can vary from minor to large (pictured). Photo by Pirjo Koski

  • Colors with unaided eye and other features
    • Green auroras info

      Green, seen with the naked eye, is one the most common colors of the aurora. The green color is derived from atomic oxygen.

      Green auroras. Lea Rahtu-Korpela.

      Green auroras. Photo by Juha Ojanperä.

    • Red coloration of the shapes lower edge info

      Red lower edge visible with the naked eye. The bands which are starting to level up their activity and are green colored have quite often a narrow red lower edge. This is the most common form of red color which is derived from molecular nitrogen.

      Aurora band with purple lower edge. Photo by Ilmo Kemppainen.

      The low hanging brightest aurora band is colored red at the lower edge. Photo by Tero Ohranen.

      Narrow purple reddish tones at the lower part of this aurora band. Photo by Merja Ruotsalainen.

      Purple band at the bottom. Photo by Panu Lahtinen.

    • Red coloration of the shapes top info

      Auroras which have red top part that can be seen with naked eye are most often observed in the bands and long rays. In this case the lower parts are usually green. If the upper parts are in sunlight, red may be stronger than green. This shade of red is due to the discharge of the excitation state of the atomic oxygen.

      Aurora that shift to reddish towards the top. Photo by Karri Pasanen. 

      Red top in a aurora band. Photo by Simo Aikioniemi.

      Red at the top of the aurora. Picture of Tom Eklund.

    • Violet auroras info

      Usually in Lapland or even in the south you can see purple auroras in stronger aurora shows. The most common color in auroras along with green and red.

Comments: 11 pcs
Esa Palmi - 9.1.2022 at 09.02 Report this

Hienot ovat olleet. Täällä etelämpänä saatiin nauttia lumisateesta.

Timo Alanko - 9.1.2022 at 10.35 Report this

Tuo taisi mennä muilta huomaamatta koko Suomessa. Lukemat näyttävät käyneen tosi korkealla. Miten tiesit odottaa tuota?

Pekka Kokko - 9.1.2022 at 11.09 Report this

Omista tulipallokameran kuvista laskin että n. 5h kaikkiaan näkyi. Komeita kuvia Eero!

Matti Helin - 9.1.2022 at 11.16 Report this

Ainakin somessa oli viime yöltä noin 300-40 viestin ketju ja mm. varoitteli 8.1. G1-myrskystä. 

Mikko Peussa - 9.1.2022 at 12.29 Report this

Timo: Minkäs teet jos samaan aikaan on käynnissä koko taivaan lumisade. Kyllähän se tiedossa oli että revontulet leiskuu ja mahdollisuutta revontulille oli myös ennustettu. Itse seurasin monta tuntia ihan ilmatieteen laitoksen sivuilta klo 23-02 miten pylväät oli koholla, mutta kun ei  pilvien läpi näe vaikka miten yrittäisi ;-)

Hieno ja näyttävä setti kuitenkin Eerolta!

Otto Ranta-Ojala - 9.1.2022 at 12.55 Report this

Taisi kuitenkin kyseessä olla koronan aukon virtausta edeltävä CIR eikä koronan massapurkaus. Nopeus nousi hitaasti, ja tätä edelsi suuri tiheys ja voimakas Bt

Eero Karvinen - 9.1.2022 at 13.02 Report this

Aluksi pitää korjata, että kyseessä oli CIR, "Co-rotating Interaction Region" eli nopean aukkotuulen etureunan plasman kasaantuma, joka on oivallinen paikka revontulille. Lähdin itse etsimään kuvauspaikkaa satelliittidatan perusteella aiemmin illalla ja silloin pikainen vilkaisu antoi aihetta olettaa CME saapuvan, kun nopeus ja tiheys hyppäsivät samanaikaisesti Bt:n voimistuessa myös. Sen enempää katsomatta satelliittia tärkeimmäksi asiaksi jäi pääseminen pois sumupilven ja jääsumun alta. Ei ole mitään väliä mitä satelliitti kertoo aurinkotuulesta jos pilvet peittävät. Pilviaukko löytyi ja siitä pikainen tilannearvio kertoi kunnon setistä ja sen, että plasmahäntä ei ole katkennut. Puolisen tuntia joutui etsimään vielä kuvauspaikkaa ja Paltamossa järven jäälle nököttämään kovaan pakkaseen. Alimyrsky alkoikin lähes samalla hetkellä.

Timo Kuhmonen - 9.1.2022 at 13.23 Report this

Pohjois-Savossa Vesannolla, näkyi eilen illalla tulipallokamerasssa reposia. Visuaalisesti havaittu myös....

Timo Alanko - 9.1.2022 at 14.55 Report this

Voisitko Eero vielä vinkata, mistä tuota satelliittidataa löytyy? Mulle ainakin tuli ihan yllätyksenä tuo piikki. Viimeksi, kun käppyröitä vilkaisin, oltiin Lapissakin ihan pohjalla. Ei käynyt mielessäkään viedä kameraa katolle päivystämään.

Eero Karvinen - 9.1.2022 at 15.26 Report this

Sivustoja on monta, josta satelliittidataa voi seurata. Laitan tähän kaksi eniten käyttämääni. Revontulikyttääjät sivustolla tietävät myös muita sivustoja, joissa on valmiiksi muotoiltua dataa: NOAA:n satelliittidata käppyröinä ja Virmalised-sivuston helpommin tulkittava data ja taivaskamerat.

NOAA Real time Solar Wind


Terhi Törmälä - 12.1.2022 at 22.55 Report this

Upeita kuvia, Eero! Täällä syvässä kaakossa oli koko illan ja yön umpipilvessä ja liian pitkä matka seljeän taivaan alle.v

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