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Ursa Astronomical Association

News 2022

Wednesday storm on the west coast

1.7. On Wednesday, a handful of spotters were greeting the thunderstorms that rose over the west coast area. The high price of gasoline forced Pirjo Koski and Riku Poskiparta to station themselves in the neighbor's barn in Laitila, but as you can see from the picture, the decision was not bad. "It must be said that it was a quite an incredible day here in the southwest, so far thunders has circled Laitila from far away," the observers write.

Good crepuscular rays Friday night

26.6. A surprisingly large number of observations of twilight rays was reported to Skywarden on the Friday night. The slightly less frequently reported component of the phenomenon opposite the sun is called the anticrepuscular rays. Mikko Luoto got a great picture of them on Friday at 23:40 pm from a ski resort tower in Vaasa.

A notch better case of reflected cloud rays

21.6. On the night between Monday and Tuesday, Kuusamo's summer night painted the underside of the cloud deck with splendid reflected cloud rays, that rank easily among the top examples of the phenomon in Taivaanvahti. The photo was taken by Jani Päiväniemi in Juuma. Cloud rays are alternations of light and shadow, the rarer reflected type arising from light whose immediate source is reflection from water surface.

Sun in three ways

20.6. "Our near-star with three different wavelengths, which is dubbed the 'trifecta' among sun enthusiasts," says Petrus Kurppa of his photo. Calcium II K on the left, in the middle full spectrum of visible light, on the right Hydrogen alpha. The wavelength of hydrogen alpha 656 nm is in the deep red part of the spectrum, while the wavelength of calcium II K 393 nm is close to ultraviolet.

The first night thunderstorms captured

19.6. On the night between Saturday and Sunday, the first night thunderstorms of the season roarred over southern Finland. A couple of observers had set off with their cameras, Petri Mäkinen's picture show lightning in Masku immediately after midnight. "It was great to watch" says Mäkinen.

Pine pollen corona in the Rautalampi evening

18.6. After the lame birch pollen coronas this year, the season always ends with the always dependable pine. The first observation came from Turku on June 1, and more observations are still being reported to Skywarden. Among the best of the collection is this sunset pollen corona, which Vesa Vauhkonen photographed on June 10 in Joutenlahti of Rautalampi.

First noctillucent clouds seen

7.6. The noctillucent clouds seen on the night between Monday and Tuesday were noticed at least in Vantaa, Helsinki and Porvoo. Attached is Pentti Arpalahti's picture of Helsinki near midnight. The start date can be described as typical, the earliest start in 25-year statistics is May 7, the latest June 27. Last year offered an excellent noctillucent cloud summer, let's follow how this summer will turn out.

An elongated hole punch cloud on Sunday

6.6. A champion hole punch cloud is round but sometimes no curved shape is visible, instead the cloud is straight. This is what was seen by Pia Simonen in Orimattila on Sunday. In particular in such cases there is reason to suspect that aeroplane has caused the freezing, and this is what indeed seems have happened here: "The direction of the cloud is northeast of Hki-Vantaa, which would match the Kuopio plane that flew earlier," writes Simonen.

April and May halo comparison

5.6. May was clearly better than April this year. Rarities were seen on 6 days in April, 11 days in May. The number of different halo forms caught was respectively 18 and 25. Total halo days were respectively 28 and 30. Compared to the previous ten years, April 2022 had low number of rarity days (variation 4-15), while May was the best so far (variation 3-10). In the picture are halos seen in Korsnäs by Jukka Kotiranta on 29 April.

Roll clouds and pine pollen coronas

5.6. In the last few days, a few roll cloud observations have arrived in the SkyWarden, shown is an individual seen by Jyrki Turunen in Pyhtää on 4 June. Jani Päiväniemi in turn photographed picturesque Undulatus asperitas clouds in Kuusamo on the first day of June. And Mikko Peussa's sample from Turku shows that the time for pine pollen coronas is at hand.

Dust devil well on a dye field

29.5. Dry weather in the spring brings out nicely whirlwinds when the hit on a field. This case was recorded on 25 May In Kokkola Tony Furubacka. He says the phenomenon lasted about a minute.

Reflection rainbow from front and back reflections

29.5. On Saturday night, Minna Järvenpää hit on a rarer type of rainbow in Lappeenranta. The specialty of the picture is the reflection rainbow, which in itself is a rare sight. But it is made even more exceptional because the arc is caused by light reflected from both the front and back of the observer. Normally only the reflection rainbow born in the former way which results in a segment occuring below the plane of the sun is seen, not the segment of the arc above the plane of the sun which is born the latter way.

The Sun during lunch breaks

27.5. Tommi Ropponen has used work breaks for taking impressive photographs of the Sun. Shown is his take during lunch on May 24th. "Weather was just ok and if I had had time to shoot material for the animation, the result would certainly have been impressive," says Ropponen. High resolution images can be found on Astrobin.

Great halos in the sky on Wednesday and Thursday

20.5. On Wednesday, fine halos were seen mainly in Muurame and Jämsä. From the latter location on the right is an image by Petri Martikainen showing Wegener arc. On Thursday, in southwestern Finland an exceptionally good odd radius displays was visible as shown by Lasse Nurminen's picture. The quality is also indicated by the fact that some observers saw the 35° halo with the naked eye. Normally, this halo is only detected in the images afterwards.

Deep sky from southern Europe

17.5. Two observations from southern lands. On the left, an image by Otto Vehviläinen from the area of Antares and Rho Ophiuchi "in completely dark sky" in Madeira. On the right, UGC 9749, or Ursa Minor Dwarf Galaxy, photographed by Tapio Lahtinen with Spanish remote telescope in the Fregenal de la Sierra. "I've photographed some of these Milky Way dwarf galaxies, and now in the spring I saw a picture of this rather challenging galaxy online," Lahtinen explains the background for his photo.

Lightning in Nurmes started the season

16.5. The first lightning strikes in the spring were reported to Skywarden on Sunday, when Eero Karvinen got a few pictures in Nurmes. Coincidentally, 15 May was also the first lightning day last year in Warden. Of course, lightning has been seen much earlier in some years, even in January. These are caught on film much less often, but the lightning that took place on 13 January 2012 in Mikkeli was captured by Aki Taavitsainen's fireball camera.

Recent events in the lower atmosphere

14.5 . The birch pollen corona photographed by Petri Martikainen in Juva on the 13th is the summer's first from this tree. On the same day, Kati Pursiainen noticed a fine mammatus in Helsinki, where also a first-class rainbow was visible. This observation was left by Terhi Hirviniemi, who says the picture was taken by her child. And the day before, Antero Ahola reported the season's first roll cloud to Taivaanvahti at the bird tower in Jyväskylä.

A significant elliptical halo observation from Juva

10.5. A long-awaited high-quality time-lapse of an elliptical halo occurrence has finally been obtained, thanks to the pictures taken by Petri Martikainen in Juva yesterday. The pictures show how the display lives continuously: the size of the ellipse changes and sometimes two of them appear. Of course, we have seen indications of such behaviour before. But now the blocker series Martikainen took made it possible for the first time to accurately align the images with respect to the Sun and thus allow follow in much more detail the evolution of the display.

Nebulas in the Orion constellation

5.5. Orion's area is featured in this picture by Eemil Pietilä, to which he added on top of an earlier data a couple of hours more exposure in April. "Actually, the results of those nights in the beginning of April were the most surprising, I didn't expect them to add much more to the picture," Pietilä writes. Three bright stars mark Orion's belt. In the vicinity of the lowest Alnitak you can see the Flame Nebula and the Horsehead Nebula. On the right is Orion's the Orion nebula M42.

Mercury and the Moon close together

3.5. The encounter between Mercury and the Moon seen yesterday has made a few observations in Skywarden. Tapio Lahtinen took the picture at 22:20 at the Tampere Ursa Observatory, where a small group had gathered to watch the event. The celestial bodies were about 2.5 degrees apart.

April 25 fireball was likely space junk

2.5. According to the analysis, the fireball that appeared near midnight on April 25 at 00.54 has apparently been space debris, comments Markku Siljama from Ursa's fireball team. According to eyewitness observations, the subject disintegrated into several parts, in one video its slow passage takes about 15 seconds. "It came from the west, hit the atmosphere around Seinäjoki and bounced back into space around Pieksämäki," writes Siljama, who said that space debris had a speed of more than 8 km / s. The picture is from Harri Kiiskinen.

Subhelic arc in Juva, elliptical halo in Turku

2.5. The turn of the month began with a notch harder-to-reach halorarities. On 30 April a strip of better halo activity extended from around Korsnäs to the Juva region. In the latter, Petri Martikainen bagged the subhelic arc (arrow in the right picture), which in recent years has been caught a few times a year. On May Day, Paula Mattila happened on a brief elliptical halo occurrence in Turku (left picture). Both rarities mark their first sightings in 2022.

Conjuncture of Venus and Jupiter in the daytime sky

1.5 . Venus and Jupiter have just been in conjunction. The distance between the planets was at minimum 0.2 degrees, which is less than half of the 0.5 degree angular diameter of the Moon. Since the planets did not appear in the night sky in Finland, Eeva-Kaisa Ahlamo picked them up from the day sky on May Day. Attached is a picture he took in Turku at 11.20, at when the distance between the planets was 0.3 degrees. “The duo was found bafflingly easily by measugin with finger from the sun and horizon”, Ahlamo writes.

An exemplary punch hole cloud in Vantaa

1.5. On the eve of May Day, two pairs of eyes in Vantaa caught a representative example of a punch hole cloud. On the left Kristiina Varttinen's picture of the phenomenon, on the right Jimi Aulonen's. The circular freezing of a cloud of water droplets occurred in a typical manner in altocumulus, and in the center of the opening is seen ice-crystalline cirrus cloud from this process.

The spring's first rainbow

30.4. After two rainbow days in January, there has been complete silence in the Skywarden, but now an observation has been made of the spring's first rainbow. On Thursday, Markku Ruonala saw a fine rainbow in Valkeakoski half an hour before sunset. Since 2012, the highest number of April rainbows has been reported in Vahti in 2016, when they were seen on 10 days. In 2019, on the other hand, no observations were made.

The rocket launch from Plesetsk was visible in the Finnish sky

29.4. at about 11 p.m., a rocket phenomenon related to the launch of the Plesetsk cosmodrome was seen. The Angra 1.2 rocket launched at least one military satellite into the sky. The rocket phases and the spherical exhaust cloud were monitored over a wide area . The picture in the news is a sample of Ismo Komulainen from Sotkamo.

Miraging in Kustavi

25.4. "A better than average mirage day", says Pekka Parviainen about the conditions on April 21st on the rocky shores of Kustavi. This time there were also superior mirages which, according to Parviainen, are so rare that despite active monitoring, you can go all year without a single decent show. Parviainen photographed mirages also the day before.

Lyrids captured by the Nyrölä meteor camera

23.4 . The maximum of the lst observable meteor shower in Finland before the summer break, Lyridis, was just recently. Harri Kiiskinen published compilation images from the Nyrölä meteor camera from last three nights. On the the Wed-Thu night, auto-detection found 5 lyrids, the next night 10 and the following night 8. The operation time on all nights was about four hours. The image shown is a sum image of meteors on Thu-Fri night.

Nice sunspot groups visible now

21.4. The spectacular sunspot groups 2993 and 2994 on the surface of sun are now for a front-row seat view, as shown by these photos that Antti Taskinen took yesterday in Joensuu. The spots are not just looking impressive – they have spewed strong X-class flares that have caused radio blackouts in Asia and Australia.

Comets are getting dimmer

21.4. "Almost all observable comets are on their way out and the brightness curves point downwards," writes Harri Kiiskinen. On the evening of April 18, Kiiskinen photographed six comets using the Hankasalmi Observatory telescope. One of these is brightening, though, the ZTF discovered in 2020. Currently at about 14 magnitude, it is projected rise over 10 mag in December. Kiiskinen says he photograped in all 18 comets during the winter.

All-sky display in Kajaani

18.4. On Saturday, better-than-usual halo display was visible in the central and eastern parts of the country. The views seem to have been best in Kajaani, where Juho Pöllänen (picture) spotted a full parhelic circle with nice 120° parhelia. This rarity was also captured by Jarmo Moilanen in Vaala.

A group of sunspots drifting from behind the edge

18.4. "A large group turning out from behind the edge," wrote Marko Myllyniemi, whose picture of  the Sun on Sunday at 10.05 am is on the left. Almost exactly 24 hours later, in the picture taken by Harri Kiiskinen, the sunspot group has already become better visible. "The sky was cloudless for a while and I used it to take a few pictures of the Sun with a 3D-printed SolEx spectral heliograph," says Kiiskinen.

Auriga targets at the end of the DS season

7.4. Several objects from the constellation Auriga are on display in Erik Pirtala's newest deep space image. These are the Flaming Star Nebula IC405, Tadpole Nebula IC 410, Spider Nebula IC 417 Fly Nebula NGC1931. The last one, visible at the bottom right of the image, is also referenced as a miniature version of Orion Nebula. "Amongst the last projects of the photography season," Pirtala writes. He collected exposure for a total of 28 hours in the image.

Haloh April started with basic halos

The Atmospheric Optical Phenomena Group is once again running the traditional Haloh April campaign . During the month, it is planned to actively detect and describe as many visible halo phenomena as possible and report them to the Sky Guard. This time the campaign has started nicely. In the early days of April, there will already be ice ice in artificial lights and cloud clouds in the Sun. Photos by Mikko Peussa 3.4. and Ella Ervasti 4.4.

March surprised with the number of halo rarities

1.4. March was exceptional in halo displays with rare halos. Rarities caused almost exclusively by pyramidal crystals were photographed on eight days and two night. Much of these numebrs are thanks to Petri Martikainen, who was the sole photographer of rarities in five displays. Photos Martikainen, Tero Sipinen, Panu Lahtinen, Jukka and Aapo Ruoskanen.

Galaxies M81 and M82 in the IFN background

30.3. When Samuli Vuorinen aimed at the galaxies M82 and M81 during three March nights, the intention was to capture them embedded in the Integrated Flux Nebula (IFN). These dim clouds on the outer edge of our galaxy are not illuminated by the individual stars of the Milky Way, but by the common light of the stars of the entire galaxy. "It did turn out surprisingly well in the end", says Vuorinen of his photo, which has 13 hours of exposure.

Monday's fireball ended in Ladoga

21.3. the modeling of the bright ball seen has been completed. The results were reported by the Stars and Space magazine. According to modeling by Ursa's fireball team, the meteoroid survived a 100-gram main body and several smaller bodies. The initial mass was estimated to be 10-20 pounds. According to Jaakko Visuri , the fireball working group, the meteoroid's solar system was of a rare type. Unfortunately, the flight of the fireball took it across the eastern border and the space stones were lost to Ladoga.

Gorgeous fireball on Monday night

21.3. more than a hundred observations have already been made of the fireball seen at 8:03 p.m. "At the end of the flight, it flashed yellow and went out. A very impressive sight," described Ari Jolkkonen from Joensuu. The findings focus on Taivaanvahti's updated map south of Oulu. Pictured is a photo of a fireball from Harri Kiiskinen 's Ursa fireball team.

Bottlinger's rings in diamond dust

22.3. A remarkable halo observation has come from Ylläs. In the pictures Jaana Koivikko took on 22 February, the subsun sun that is cut off by the slope has two "hoods". These are Bottlinger's rings. Although the phenomenon itself is very rare, this observation is made special by the fact that the image was taken from the ground in diamond dust and the light source is sun. Bottlingers are seen practically only in middle clouds virga from an airplane. One previous observation is in diamond dust, but that was a special instance of the phenomenon in outdoor lights.

Pollen coronas came record early

21.3. The first pollen coronas in 2022 were caught by Lasse Nurminen (pictured) in Raisio and Matias Takala in Helsinki on March 17th. This start is the earliest in Taivaanvahti, and with a good margin at that, as the previous record date shared by years 2017 and 2019 was March 23rd. Vahti has pictures of pollen coronas since 2003. Early spring pollen coronas are most likely from alder.

More aurora observations from the turn of the week

16.3. Plenty more pictures of the northern lights on the night between Sunday and Monday have been published in Skywarden. There are now 74 observations from Muonio to the southern coast of the country. In the animation korona is fluttering in Kontiolahti as photographed by Karri Pasanen. “I threw myself on my back on the snow and got to enjoy the finest northern lights show in many years,” he writes.

Lobster claw nebula from moonlit sky

16.3. There are fewer observations of the deep space object Sh2-157 or Lobster claw nebula. Eerik Pirtala took this object on the border of Cassiopeia and Cepheus as his latest target now in March, collecting data for 25 hours. “Photographed entirely over the past week, growing and almost full moon,” he says.

Northern lights last night all the way to the south

14.3. On the night between Sunday and Monday, it was possible to see the northern lights from southern Lapland to Turku. Currently 22 observers have submitted reports to Skywarden. Attached are photos of Voitto Pitkänen and Jani Päiväniemi from Kuusamo. Pitkänen says that the aurora filled the whole sky. “Great to watch”, he notes.

Geostationary satellites in two ways

7.3. Geostationary satellites follow the rotation of the earth and thus remain seemingly stationary in the sky. Pekka Parviainen published an illustrative pair of images showing them with and without star tracking. Parviainen says that he has been photographing geostationaries for 28.5 years. "Maybe many are the same eyes lurking there from year to year, but by some compulsion I need to check them every fall and spring."

Odd radius halos in southern Finland

6.3. One of the signs of spring in celestial phenomena is the appearance of multi-form odd radius displays. This year's first was spotted yesterday in Kouvola by Tero Sipinen and by Petri Martikainen in Juva. The picture shows a stack made by the latter. Although no top rarities can be seen, the 9 and 24° upper parhelia deserve a mention.

A friend's data helped to flesh out the Lower's nebula

4.3. Erik Pirtalan's latest project, Sh2-261 or Lower's nebula, got finalized with a help from a friend. He got six hours of an unused narrowband data from 2018, photographed by Jari Saukkonen. "There was some work in combining the data that had been taken with different focal lenght and exposures, but the sharp data was of a great help", says Pirtala, who himself photographed the nebula for 13,5 hours.

Surface halo in Liperi

2.3. On the last day of February, Antti Taskinen photographed a fine surface halo in Liperi. He noticed the phenomenon as, attracted by the sunny weather, he made a stop at a lake on his way home. "It was nice to watch a little longer," Taskinen writes. This is 22° halo. It is confined to the horizon because the crystals on the surface favor a certain orientation. Taskinen's observation has images of a broader view.

A bright fireball was seen on Sunday night

28.2. There are 36 observations in Taivaanvahti of the fireball seen at 19:59 yesterday. A handful of the sightings came from behind the steering wheel, and one dashboard camera video is also available. Sami Korkeamäki, who was driving in Huhmarkoski, says that the firefight lasted 2-3 seconds and disintegrated into three or four parts before going out. Attached is a photo from Harri Kiiskinen's meteor camera which shows the fireball through a thin cloud cover in Jyväskylä.

Zodiac light shines in the sky at the dawn of spring

21.2. There have been rare observations of zodiac light since January 22, when Pirjo Koski opened the season in Laitila. This is a phenomenon that betokens spring. Although there are individual photos in Taivaanvahti from autumns, in the last three years all observations have been made during January-April. This picture of the zodiac was taken by Lasse Nurminen on Sunday night in Naantali.

Quintuple lunar corona in Joensuu

14.2. Antti Taskinen says that the northern lights remained dim on the night between Saturday and Sunday, but it was nice to watch the corona around the moon. “The coronas I have seen in the past have been modest compared to this,” he writes. And no wonder, for it is rarely that one can seen in the sky coronas with as many as five colored rings. According to Taskinen, there may be even a sixth faint rings in the processed image.

Moon crashing rocket stage was visible in the sky

10.2. According to predictions, on March 4, the Moon will be hit by a part of SpaceX's rocket that has been in space for 7 years. Tapio Lahtinen says there has been call for observations before the collision and he managed to photograph the object in Tampere on February 9 at 00:50, when the weather suitably cleared after midnight. Lahtinen says the distance to the rocket stage was 50,000 kilometers.

Slow flight of a fireball in the twilight sky

7.2. Jorma Kuusela has published a video of a bolide captured by an automatic camera in Utsjoki on February 1. "After Panu Lahtinen's observation, I checked my own camera and it had hit good," he writes, referring to Lahtinen's earlier observation from Inari. The fireball appeared at 4.50 pm and was exceptionally long lasting. Kuusela says it is seen in the video 10.5 seconds before disappearing behind a tree.

Orion belt items

6.2. Aleksi Ruotsila published views of the surroundings of Alnitak, the easternmost star in Orion's belt. The hallmark of the area is the Horse Head Fog visible in the middle. Alnitak shines as the brightest star in the image, just to the left of it, and below it is the Flame Nebula, NGC 2024. The image was collected by Ruotsila last spring and October for a total of 5 hours.

Subsun in a light ice chrystals as seen from the air

4.2. Some diamond dust halos can be easily observed from the air. On Thursday in Juva, there was a light precipitation of ice crystals, with a weak sun pillar visible individual glitter, writes Petri Martikainen. As Martikainen lifted his drone into the air, at a height of 120 meters a decent subsun solidified out of this diamond dust.

Monkey head nebula and Dolphin nebula

2.2. Two latest deep sky publications in Skywarden are NCG 2174 or Monkey head nebula (left) and Sh2-308 or Dolphin nebula. The former was photographed by Tomi Kurri on 28 January, the target was new to him. The latter is Tapio Lahtisen's improved version of his earlier image with Spanish remote telescope. "I wasn't happy with the result so I took more exposure", he writes.

An evening with 10 comets

30.1. During one single evening, Harri Kiiskinen tried to photograph all the comets that were visible in more than 20 degrees hight. The operation was carried out 25.1. within an hour and a half with the remote controlled telescope of the Hankasalmi observatory. Kiiskinen says that unexpected brightenings or break-ups make observing interesting. "You never know what's going to happen next to the comet." The image is of one of the night's main targets, comet C / 2019 L3 (ATLAS), visible in the constellation of Gemini.

Rainbow is the hardest to come by in February

30.1. Jussi Koponen saw the pictured rainbow in Kuopio yesterday. What Skywarden's statistics tell about the occurrence of these rare winter rainbows in Finland? From November to March, February comes out as the month with least rainbows. Only five occurrences are found in the last eleven winters. The title of the month with second least rainbows is shared between December, January and March, each with 10 rainbow days. November's number is 21.

Nacreous clouds with northern lights in Muonio

27.1. Jani Laasanen, while returning from a shopping trip on January 25 in Muonio, photographed a simultaneous occurrence of nacreous cloud and northern lights. It is possible that this is the first such image taken. In general, this day and the one before it were good nacreous cloud days, observations were made all over Finland, but mainly in the northern half.

James Webb telescope at its destination

27.1. The James Webb telescope performed an engine burnout on Monday at 9 p.m., which parked it at its destination on an orbit around the L2 point. On Tuesday night, Jorma Ryske photographed the telescope in Artjärvi, it is shown as a moving point in the accompanying 15-minute animation. "It's already dim, the brightness of the JWST measured from the image is mag 17.34," writes Ryske. Also Arto Oksanen photographed the telescope on the same evening.

Impressive mother of pearl clouds in Enontekiö

18.1. The second PSC period of the winter began on Sunday, reports of clouds have come from Juva to Utsjoki. The picture below is from the finest show that Merja Paakkanen watched in Enontekiö on Monday. The first period took place a month ago on 15-17 December. Additionally, a single occurrence of PSC's was photographed on 23 December.

The best northern lights play in the winter brought even dunes

14.-15.1. Almost the whole of Finland experienced the northernmost play of northern lights so far. Some of the observers were able to see the rare northern lights, which provided more data to help the researchers. Congratulations to everyone who photographed the dunes. At the maximum stage of the play, the northern lights chandelier, which dominated the sky, was active and the sky was more than half covered by a fire. (Photo by Ida Andersson)

Intersection of Minnaert cigar on snow

12.1. Lasse Nurminen photographed a surface 22° halo with bright lamp. Instead of the lower part of the 22° halo around the lamp, a closed loop appears on the snow. This is the cut surface of a three-dimensional 22° halo called also as Minnaert cigar, and created due to the divergent light of the lamp. Nurminen's video shows how the loop of the 22 ° halo shrinks as he walks closer to the lamp and disappears when Minnaert's cigar no longer touches the snow surface.

Pioneering Finnish halo statistics from 2021

11.1. Petri Martikainen took it as his task to stack all halo display he saw last year. The stacked image typically brings out halos that are invisible to the human eye and one could say it tells the "truth" of the display. Now, based on theses stacks, Martikainen has published the numbers for individual halo occuurrences. The work is first of its kind in Finland and as an unique addition, Martikainen's list comes also with a comparison to what was visible to the naked eye.

A long-lasting smoke trail captured by meteor camera

10.1. Timo Kantola published a video of a shooting star and the long-lived smoketrail it left behind on 15 November last year. "What makes the case interesting is that the smoke of the meteorite can be observed in the pictures for about 20 minutes," writes Kantola, who wonders what material the meteor might have been.

Two images of Heart nebula

10.1. Here are two most recent views of the Heart Nebula in the constellation of Cassiopeia. On the left Antti Taskinen's early December, on the right Erik Pirtala's recent photo. 40 hours of exposure and 17 shooting nights broke Pirtala's previous records. “I was able to use automation to capture individual frames from small openings over several nights,” he writes. Taskinen gathered light for his image during one night, 8 hours in total.

A great night of Northern Lights 8/9 Jan

9.1. Observers were pumped up about the aurora show on Saturday night. Jari Ylioja, who took the image, says this was one of the best sets he has seen. “The bright substorm lasted almost an hour,” he writes. Some, who were under overcast skies but saw the promising satellite data, managed to see the lights after a car chase for a gap in the cloud.

Bright fireball in the evening of 6 January

7.1. As of now, there are 37 sightings of this Thursday night fireball in Vahti. Observation times vary, probably it was seen between 7:15 and 7:20 pm. A few people report a strong flash. "The finest fireball I've ever seen because of that brightening / explosion," writes Eija Saarni from Loppi. Despite abundant observations, no photographs of have yet surfaced.

A quartet of deep sky objects

4.1.Erik Pirtala fitted four different types of objects in the picture he exposed on midwinter nights. The center is dominated by a dark nebula Barnard 175 with a reflection nebula vdB 152 at its apex. In the lower right is the old planetary nebula DeHt-5. The red strands are supernova remnant SNR 110.3 + 11.3, which at 1300 light-years away from us is one of the closest of tis kind. Exposure time is 22 hours.

Patterned northern light in Sodankylä

4.1. Ritva Metsälampi saw in Sodankylä's Sattanen a peculiar aurora formation on 3. January. "Turbulent aurora began to emerge from the horizon, which quickly grew into a long segment which seemed to have several individual spherical parts", she writes. The attached images, which are taken at 00:28:28, 00:28:40 and 00:29:01, show the phenomenon's progression. In the last picture of the sequence on the right, the patterning has already disappeared. Exposures are 2.5 seconds.

Zeniitti 5/2021: Asteroids and satellite triangles

The last Zeniitti online magazine in 2021 was published on New Year's Eve. The magazine serves information about the Finland 100 Asteroids project, the lunar eclipse in November, satellite triangles and observations from the lunar terminator.  Images: Tähtikallio Observation Group, Mikko Peussa and Jari Kankaanpää.

Quadrandites peak tonight not interfered by moon

3.1. On the other hand, the cloud situation does not look auspicious. But should there be opening, a good time to watch is at 11 pm local time, which is the predicted maximum. The calculated number of shooting stars under optimal conditions is then 120. The peak is sharp, the time when the number of meteorides is more than half the maximum is only 4 hours long. Moon is not a problem because new moon was 2. Jan. In the photo are shooting stars captured by Satu Juvonen's camera during 2020 quadrantides.